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非延续性动词

这类动词也可称为终止性动词瞬间动词点动词,表示的动作不能延续,即动作发生后立即结束。

这类动词有:

arrive/reach 到达 buy 买 close 关

post 邮寄 fall 落下 die 死

leave 离开 go 去 break 打破

lose 丢失 give 给 join 加入

receive 接收 borrow 借 move搬

hear 听到 hear from 收到来信

become 成为 begin/start 开始

finish 结束 marry 娶、嫁

come 来 happen 发生

1.非延续性动词可用来表示某一动作完成,因此可用于现在完成时。如:

The train has arrived.火车到了。

Have you joined the computer group?你加入电脑小组了吗?

2.非延续性动词表示的动作极其短暂,不能持续。因此,不可与表示一段时间的状语连用(只限肯定式)。如:

(1)他已经死了三年了。

误:He has died for three years.

正:He has been dead for three years.

正:He died three years ago.

正:It is three years since he died.

正:Three years has passed since he died.

(2)他来这儿五天了。

误:He has come here for five days.

正:He has been here for five days.

正:He came here five days ago.

正:It is five days since he came here.

正:Five days has passed since he came here.

(1)、(2)句中的die、come为非延续性动词,不能与表示"段时间"的状语连用。那么,应如何正确表达呢?可以采用下面的四种方法:

(1)将句中非延续性动词转换为相应的延续性动词,如上面两例中的第一种正确表达方式。下面列举几例:leave→been away, borrow→keep, buy→have, begin/start→be on, die→be dead, move to→live in, finish→be over, join→be in/be a member of, open sth.→keep sth. open, fall ill→be ill, get up→be up, catch a cold→have a cold。

(2)将句中表示"段时间"的状语改为表示过去确定时间的状语,如下面两例中的第二种正确表达方式。

(3)用句型"It is+段时间+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第三种正确表达方式。

(4)用句型"时间+has passed+since..."表达原意,如上面两例中的第四种正确表达方式。

3.非延续性动词可用于现在完成时否定式中,成为可以延续的状态,因而可与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

He hasn't left here since 1986.

I haven't heard from my father for two weeks.

4.非延续性动词的否定式与until/till连用,构成"not+终止性动词+until/till ..."的句型,意为"直到……才……"。如:

You can't leave here until I arrive.直到我到了,你才能离开这里。

I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight.今天晚上直到我画完画,我才上床睡觉。

5.非延续性动词可以用于when引导的时间状语从句中,但不可以用于while引导的时间状语从句中。when表示的时间是"点时间"(从句谓语动词用终止性动词),也可以是"段时间"(从句谓语动词用延续性动词)。而while表示的是一个较长的时间或过程,从句谓语动词用延续性动词。如:

When we reached London, it was twelve o'clock. (reach为非延续性动词)

Please look after my daughter while/when we are away. (be away为延续性动词短语)

6.非延续性动词完成时不可与how long连用(只限于肯定式)。如:

误:How long have you come here?

正:How long have you been here?

正:When did you come here?

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