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间接引语

拉丁语语法名词,又叫间接引述,英文为 indirect statement。只用在表述意见的动词 perception 之后的一种从句,这种从句并非由主语直接叙述出来,而是通过第三人转述的。实际上间接引语大都是宾语从句,当直接引语为祈使句,陈述句,疑问句被转换成间接引语时,句子的结构,人称,时态,时间,时间状语和地点状语等都要发生改变。间接引语其实就是我们所说的第三人称转述。

比如:他们说:"皇帝死后将成为神。" [直接引语] Dixere:"Augustus post mortem deum factus erit."

他们说,那个皇帝死后将成为神。[间接引语] Dixere Augustum post mortem deum faciendum esse.

间接引语中,引语的主语要使用宾格,动词要使用不定式,不定式的时态取决于引语、动词发生的时间与主句动词时间的先后性,不定式的性、数取决于间接引语的主语(如前所述,只用宾格)。

如:执政官们认为奴隶们不该被释放。Consules sentiunt servos non esse liberandos.

主句动词认为:sentiunt ,时态是现在时。间接引语中的动词是不定式 liberandos esse,是将来时,因为"被释放"的动作是发生在主句动词"认为"之后的。liberandos 的性(阳性)、数(复数)与间接引语的主语servos 保持一致。

当我们引用别人的话时,我们可以使用别人的原话,也可以用自己的话把意思转述出来。如果引用原话,被引用的部分就称之为直接引语,反之,则称为间接引语。

这里有两句间接引语。前面一句的动词是 interfectum esse,是不定式的完成时,表示"被杀害"的动作是发生在fama erat [消息到来]之前的;后一句的动词是 vivere, 是不定式的现在时,表示"活着"这个动作与消息到来同步。

引述或转述别人的话称为"引语"。直接引用别人的原话,两边用引号" "标出,叫做直接引语;用自己的语言转述别人的话,不需要引号的叫做间接引语,实际上间接引语大都是宾语从句(其中由祈使句转换的间接引语除外,其转换后是不定式)。那么直接引语为陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和祈使句,转换为间接引语时,句子的结构,人称、时态、时间状语和地点状语等都要有变化,如何变化呢?

直接引语

(DirectSpeech):当我们引用别人的话语时,若引用的是原话,被引用的部分叫直接引语。

间接引语

(IndirectSpeech):当我们引用别人的话语时,也可以用自己的话把意思转述出来,这种转述的别人说话的部分叫做间接引语。

典型例句:

She said,"I like English very much."(直接引语)

(她说:"我非常喜欢英语"。)

She said she liked English very much.(间接引语)

(她说她非常喜欢英语。)

直接引语

间接引语

一般过去时

一般完成时

过去完成时

现在进行时

过去进行时

过去完成时

过去完成时(不变)

过去进行时

过去进行时

现在时

过去时

一般将来时

过去将来时

1)直接引语中的第一人称,一般转换为第三人称,如:

He said,"I am very sorry."

-->He said that he was very sorry.

2)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对转述人说的,转换为第一人称,如:

"You should be more careful next time," my father told me.

-->My father told me that I should be more careful next time.

3)直接引语中的第二人称,如果原话是针对第三人称说的,转换成第三人称。如:

She said to her son, "I'll check your homework tonight."

-->She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.

4)人称的转换包括人称代词、反身代词、物主代词等,如:

He asked me, "Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?"

-->He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.

总之,人称的转换不是固定的,具体情况,具体对待,要符合逻辑。

5) 为了方便记忆 有个口诀:一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新。

另有:一随主,二随宾,三不变。指的都是从句(间接引语)人称的变化。

直接引语改为间接引语时,主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时,从句(即间接引语部分)的谓语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化,变成过去时范畴的各种时态(实际也是宾语从句的时态要求),变化如下:

指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化:

直接引语

间接引语



herethere

agobefore

this

that



these

those



now

then



today

that day



this week(month,etc.)

that week(month,etc.)



yesterday

the day before



the day before yesterday

last week(year,etc.)

two days before

the week (year,etc.)before



tomorrow

the next/following day



the day after tomorrow

two days later(in two days)



next week(year,etc)

the next/following week(year,etc)



客观真理时态不变
具体时间时态不变

注意:情态动词的时态转换:

can

could

may

might

must

must\had to

shall

should

例如:

"I am very glad to visit your school", she said.

-->She said she was very glad to visit our school.

"我能参观你的学校非常高兴。"她说。

-->她说她很高兴参观我们的学校。

Tom said, "We are listening to the pop music."

-->Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.

汤姆说,"我们正在听流行音乐。"

-->汤姆说他们正在听流行音乐。

Mother asked, "Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?"

-->Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.

妈妈问,"你在你看电视之前完成你的家庭作业吗?"

-->妈妈问我是否在我看电视之前完成我的作业。

He asked the conductor, "Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?"

-->He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.

他问售票员,"我应该在哪儿下车换乘3路公共汽车?"

-->他问售票员,他应该在哪儿下车换乘3路公共汽车。

"Why did she refuse to go there?" the teacher asked.

-->The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.

"她为什么拒绝去那里?"老师问。

-->老师问她为什么拒绝去那里。

Tom said, "We were having a football match this time yesterday."

-->Tom said that they were having a football match that time the day before.

汤姆说,"我们昨天的这个时候正在进行一场足球比赛。"

-->汤姆说他们前一天正在进行一场足球比赛的。

He said,"I haven't heard from my parents these days."

-->He said that he hadn't heard from his parents those days.

他说,"这些天我没有收到我父母的来信。"

-->他说这些天他没有收到我父母的来信。

She said, "He always feels tired."

→She said (that) he has always felt tired.

她说,"他总是感到累。"

她说他总是觉得累。

直接引语变成间接引语时,从句时态无须改变的情况:

1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时的时候,如:

He always says, "I am tired out."

-->He always says that he is tired out.

2)当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候,如:

He will say, "I'll try my best to help you."

-->He will say that he will try his best to help me.

3)当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时,如:

He said, "I went to college in 1994."

-->He told us that he went to college in 1994.

4)当直接引语中有以when, while引导的从句,表示过去的时间时,如:

He said,"When I was a child, I usually played football after school."

-->

He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.

5)当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时,如:

Our teacher said to us, "Light travels faster than sound."

-->Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.

6)当引语是谚语、格言时,如:

He said,"Practice makes perfect."

-->He said that practice makes perfect.

7)当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used t-o, need时,如:

例如:

The doctor said, "You'd better drink plenty of water."

-->The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water.

He said, "She must be a teacher."

--> He said that she must be a teacher.

He said, "She ought to have arrived her office by now."

-->He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.

The teacher said, "You needn't hand in your compositions today."

-->The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions.

She asked, "Must I take the medicine?"

--> She asked if she had to take the medicine.

〔注〕:此处用had to代替must更好

8)此外转述中的变化要因实际情况而定,不能机械照搬,如果当地转述,here不必改为there, 动词come不必改为go,如果当天转述yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon等均不必改变。如:

Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon.

Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor?

Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon.

地点状语及某些对比性的指示代词和动词变化:

1)指示代词:these 变成those

2)地点状语:here变成there

She said, "I won't come here any more."

--> She said that she wouldn't go there any more..

3)动词:come变成go,bring变成take

5、直接引语变成间接引语,句子结构的变化

1)陈述句。用连词that引导,that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直接用引语中的said, 也可用told来代替,注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说told that, 如:

He said, "I have been to the Great Wall."

-->He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.

He said, "I'll give you an examination next Monday."

-->He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可说told that)

此外主句中的谓语还常有:

repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等,又如:

He said,"I'm late because of the heavy traffic."--> He explained to us that he was late because of t-he heavy traffic.

如果间接引语是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列从句,第一个连词可以省略,以后的连词一般不省略,以免混乱。

The doctor said, "You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon."-->

The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.

2)直接引语为一般疑问句,(也称是否疑问句,)间接引语用连词whether或if引导,原主句中谓语动词sai-d要改为asked(me/him/us等),语序是陈述句的语序,这一点非常重要。

He said, "Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?"

-->He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.

He said, "You are interested in English, aren't you?"

-->He asked whether I was interested in English.

3) 直接引语为选择疑问句,间接引语用whether…or…表达,而不用if…or…,也不用either…or…. 如:

He asked, "Do you speak English or French?"

-->He asked me whether I spoke English or French.

I asked, "Will you take bus or take train?"

-->I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.

4)直接引语为特殊疑问句,改成间接引语时,原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词,主句的谓语动词用ask(sb.)来表达,语序改为陈述句语序。如:

He asked,"What's your name?"

--> He asked(me)what my name was.

He asked us, "How many car factories have been built in your country?"

-->He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.

5)直接引语为祈使句时,改为间接引语,用带to的不定式表达,谓语动词常是ask, advise, tell, warn, orde-r, request等。如ask sb. to do,(由肯定祈使句变成)ask sb. not to do(由否定祈使句转变),并且在不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态都作相应的变化。如:

He said,"Be seated, please."

--> He asked us to be seated.

"Do be careful with your handwriting." He said.

-->He told me to be careful with my handwriting.

"Never come here again!" said the officer nearby.

-->The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again.

"Don't touch anything in the lab without permission," the teacher said.

-->The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.

6)有些含有"建议"、"劝告"的祈使句,可用suggest, insist, offer等动词转述,如:

He said, "Let's have a rest."

--> He suggested our having a rest.

He said, "Let me help you."

--> He offered to help me.

7)当直接引语形式上是疑问句,有表示请求,建议意义时,可用ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise s-b. to do sth. 等形式转述。如:

"Would you mind opening the door?" he asked.

-->He asked me to open the door.

"Why not going out for a walk?" he asked us.

-->He advised us to go out for a walk. 或He suggested we go out for a walk.

8)直接引语是感叹句时,变间接引语可用what或how引导,也可用that引导,如:

She said, "What a lovely day it is!"

--> She said what a lovely day it was. 或She said that it was a lov-ely day.

嵌套间接引语的从句:

如果间接引语当中还镶嵌有另一句从句,则被称为嵌套间接引语的从句,英文叫:the subordinate clause i-n indirect statement。这时,这样的从句要使用虚拟语气。从句动词的时态与主句动词的时态相关联。如:

Dux dicebat militem qui fugisset poenas daturum esse. 统帅曾常说,那个逃跑的士兵将要受到惩罚。

qui fugisset[逃跑] 是一句关系从句,修饰militem "士兵",由于处在dicebat [说]后面的间接引语当中,因此需使用虚拟语气。间接引语的动词是不定式 daturum esse[将受到],为将来时,因为动作发生在主句动词"说"之后,而 fugisset [逃跑]为虚拟语气的过去完成时,表示在统帅"说话"之前已经逃走了

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:

She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."

→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

②直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?"

→He asked John if he could swim.

"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked.

→My mother asked me whether I ha-d finished the homework.

"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?"

→He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

③直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"

→ She asked me when they had their dinner.

④直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:

"Don't make any noise," she said to the children.

→She told (ordered) the children not to make any noi-se. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.

→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

⑤直接引语如果是以"Let's"开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用"suggest +动名词(或从句)。"如:

He said, "Let's go to the film."

→He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to s-ee the film.

引述别人的话有两种方式:一是使用引号引出人家的原话,这叫做直接引语;一是用自己的话把人家的话转述出来,这叫做间接引语。例如:

John said, "I'm going to London with my father."

约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)

John said that he was going to London with his father.

约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)

变人称:

"一随主"是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:

She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

"二随宾"是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称。或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:

He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。

"第三人称不更新"是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如:

Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。

变时态:

直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。

现在时它需改为过去时态;过去时态改为完成时;过去完成时则保留原来的时态。如:

1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen

2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.

3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"

→She said he would go to see his friend。

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

①直接引语是客观真理

"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me.

→ The te-acher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。

②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"

→Jack asked John where he was g-oing when he met him in the street。

③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。"

→Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。

④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, "I get up at six every morning。"

→He said he gets up at six every morning。

⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said. "You had better come have today。"

→Peter said I had better go there that day。

变状语:

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规津,时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例:now变为then, yest-erday。变为 the day before)地点状语(分具体情况),尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由"此"改为"彼"(例:this 改为that),如:

He said, "These books are mine."

→He said those books were his.

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