网络热词 > 间接引语
比如:他们说:"皇帝死后将成为神。" [直接引语] Dixere:"Augustus post mortem deum factus erit."
他们说，那个皇帝死后将成为神。[间接引语] Dixere Augustum post mortem deum faciendum esse.
如:执政官们认为奴隶们不该被释放。Consules sentiunt servos non esse liberandos.
主句动词认为:sentiunt ，时态是现在时。间接引语中的动词是不定式 liberandos esse，是将来时，因为"被释放"的动作是发生在主句动词"认为"之后的。liberandos 的性(阳性)、数(复数)与间接引语的主语servos 保持一致。
这里有两句间接引语。前面一句的动词是 interfectum esse，是不定式的完成时，表示"被杀害"的动作是发生在fama erat [消息到来]之前的;后一句的动词是 vivere， 是不定式的现在时，表示"活着"这个动作与消息到来同步。
She said,"I like English very much."(直接引语)
She said she liked English very much.(间接引语)
He said，"I am very sorry."
-->He said that he was very sorry.
"You should be more careful next time," my father told me.
-->My father told me that I should be more careful next time.
She said to her son, "I'll check your homework tonight."
-->She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.
He asked me, "Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?"
-->He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.
5) 为了方便记忆 有个口诀:一随主，二随宾，第三人称不更新。
the day before
the day before yesterday
two days before
the week (year,etc.)before
the next/following day
the day after tomorrow
two days later(in two days)
the next/following week(year,etc)
"I am very glad to visit your school", she said.
-->She said she was very glad to visit our school.
Tom said, "We are listening to the pop music."
-->Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.
Mother asked, "Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?"
-->Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.
He asked the conductor, "Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?"
-->He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.
"Why did she refuse to go there?" the teacher asked.
-->The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.
Tom said, "We were having a football match this time yesterday."
-->Tom said that they were having a football match that time the day before.
He said，"I haven't heard from my parents these days."
-->He said that he hadn't heard from his parents those days.
She said, "He always feels tired."
→She said (that) he has always felt tired.
He always says, "I am tired out."
-->He always says that he is tired out.
He will say, "I'll try my best to help you."
-->He will say that he will try his best to help me.
He said, "I went to college in 1994."
-->He told us that he went to college in 1994.
He said，"When I was a child, I usually played football after school."
He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.
Our teacher said to us, "Light travels faster than sound."
-->Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.
He said，"Practice makes perfect."
-->He said that practice makes perfect.
7)当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used t-o, need时，如:
The doctor said, "You'd better drink plenty of water."
-->The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water.
He said, "She must be a teacher."
--> He said that she must be a teacher.
He said, "She ought to have arrived her office by now."
-->He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.
The teacher said, "You needn't hand in your compositions today."
-->The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions.
She asked, "Must I take the medicine?"
--> She asked if she had to take the medicine.
8)此外转述中的变化要因实际情况而定，不能机械照搬，如果当地转述，here不必改为there, 动词come不必改为go，如果当天转述yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon等均不必改变。如:
Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon.
Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor?
Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon.
She said, "I won't come here any more."
--> She said that she wouldn't go there any more..
1)陈述句。用连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直接用引语中的said, 也可用told来代替，注意，可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说told that, 如:
He said, "I have been to the Great Wall."
-->He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.
He said, "I'll give you an examination next Monday."
-->He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可说told that)
repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等，又如:
He said，"I'm late because of the heavy traffic."--> He explained to us that he was late because of t-he heavy traffic.
The doctor said, "You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon."-->
The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.
He said, "Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?"
-->He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.
He said, "You are interested in English, aren't you?"
-->He asked whether I was interested in English.
3) 直接引语为选择疑问句，间接引语用whether…or…表达，而不用if…or…，也不用either…or…. 如:
He asked, "Do you speak English or French?"
-->He asked me whether I spoke English or French.
I asked, "Will you take bus or take train?"
-->I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.
He asked，"What's your name?"
--> He asked(me)what my name was.
He asked us, "How many car factories have been built in your country?"
-->He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.
5)直接引语为祈使句时，改为间接引语，用带to的不定式表达，谓语动词常是ask, advise, tell, warn, orde-r, request等。如ask sb. to do，(由肯定祈使句变成)ask sb. not to do(由否定祈使句转变)，并且在不定式短语中的时间状语、地点状语、人称及时态都作相应的变化。如:
He said，"Be seated, please."
--> He asked us to be seated.
"Do be careful with your handwriting." He said.
-->He told me to be careful with my handwriting.
"Never come here again!" said the officer nearby.
-->The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again.
"Don't touch anything in the lab without permission," the teacher said.
-->The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.
6)有些含有"建议"、"劝告"的祈使句，可用suggest, insist, offer等动词转述，如:
He said, "Let's have a rest."
--> He suggested our having a rest.
He said, "Let me help you."
--> He offered to help me.
7)当直接引语形式上是疑问句，有表示请求，建议意义时，可用ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise s-b. to do sth. 等形式转述。如:
"Would you mind opening the door?" he asked.
-->He asked me to open the door.
"Why not going out for a walk?" he asked us.
-->He advised us to go out for a walk. 或He suggested we go out for a walk.
She said, "What a lovely day it is!"
--> She said what a lovely day it was. 或She said that it was a lov-ely day.
如果间接引语当中还镶嵌有另一句从句，则被称为嵌套间接引语的从句，英文叫:the subordinate clause i-n indirect statement。这时，这样的从句要使用虚拟语气。从句动词的时态与主句动词的时态相关联。如:
Dux dicebat militem qui fugisset poenas daturum esse. 统帅曾常说，那个逃跑的士兵将要受到惩罚。
qui fugisset[逃跑] 是一句关系从句，修饰militem "士兵"，由于处在dicebat [说]后面的间接引语当中，因此需使用虚拟语气。间接引语的动词是不定式 daturum esse[将受到]，为将来时，因为动作发生在主句动词"说"之后，而 fugisset [逃跑]为虚拟语气的过去完成时，表示在统帅"说话"之前已经逃走了
She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."
→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.
②直接引语如果是反意疑问句，选择疑问句或一般疑问句，间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?"
→He asked John if he could swim.
"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked.
→My mother asked me whether I ha-d finished the homework.
"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?"
→He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.
She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"
→ She asked me when they had their dinner.
④直接引语如果是祈使句，间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:
"Don't make any noise," she said to the children.
→She told (ordered) the children not to make any noi-se. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.
→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.
He said, "Let's go to the film."
→He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to s-ee the film.
John said, "I'm going to London with my father."
John said that he was going to London with his father.
She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.
He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。
Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。
1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen
2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.
3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"
→She said he would go to see his friend。
"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me.
→ The te-acher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。
Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"
→Jack asked John where he was g-oing when he met him in the street。
Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。"
→Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。
He said, "I get up at six every morning。"
→He said he gets up at six every morning。
⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to， had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时，(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:
Peter said. "You had better come have today。"
→Peter said I had better go there that day。
直接引语变间接引语，状语变化有其内在规津，时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例:now变为then, yest-erday。变为 the day before)地点状语(分具体情况)，尤其表示方向性的，或用指示代词修饰的状语，由"此"改为"彼"(例:this 改为that),如:
He said, "These books are mine."
→He said those books were his.
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